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养老保障 - 德国理财网

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养老保障

德国法定养老金系统是建立在隔代养老的基础上,即现在的工作人士通过缴纳法定养老保险来资助现在的退休人士拿取退休金。这个养老体系只有在将来的工作人口的数量比退休人口大得多的情况下才能运转。可是德国目前的人口发展状况却不容乐观,一方面婴儿出生率越来越低,另一方面人均寿命却越来越高,这导致德国老年人口占总人口的比例越来越大,老年人口拿退休金的年限也越来越长。

因此德国法定的养老金会越来越少,如果在德国定居的华人单靠法定养老金来养老的话,晚年生活质量可能会大打折扣。对于雇员来说,您将来拿到手的退休金数额是您在达到退休年龄前的最后净工资的一定比例,大概是40%,而这个比例正在变得越来越小,如果您是公司老板或自由职业者,那么您就更需要为自己的养老问题提前打算了。德国市场上的养老产品种类繁多,您在投资选择以前需仔细了解,因为不是每种产品都适合所有人的。
德国养老产品的分类有以下几种:
- 有国家补贴的理斯特退休金(Riester-Rente):适用于雇员和有法定退休金的人士。
- 吕如普(Rürup-Rente)退休金则适用于自营人士和高收入高税率人士。
- 其它的私人退休金保险(Renten-versicherung)和人寿保险(Lebens-versicherung)所有人士都可以购买,作为今后的养老补充。
对您来说最理想的私人养老保险产品是与您的年龄,职业以及希望的投资方式相关的。此外,您需要在投资前考虑好,对您来说是投资的安全性更重要还是投资的高盈利更重要,当然,高盈利产品必然会伴随着高风险。


如果您想尽早为自己将来的养老保障作打算的话,可以按下述的步骤开始进行:
- 首先您需要清楚您将来到底能够拿到多少数额的法定退休金。这个信息您可以从每年法定退休金机构给您寄的信里可以找到。当然,您也可以直接咨询相关的退休金部门。
- 其次,您需要计算一下,您在退休以后的开销大概需要多少金额。
- 如果您的退休金数额比将来的生活开销所需小的话,那么您就需要把这个差额通过额外投保私人养老保险或者通过其他投资方式来填补。
- 另外,您可以咨询专业人士,您以及您的配偶是否具备拿理斯特国家养老补贴的条件,或者您是否能够获得政策补贴的企业退休金。
总之,养老问题是涉及所有人的重要问题。您应该每年关注一下您的退休金变化是否还能满足您将来的生活需求。一旦答案是否定的话,那么您就应尽早准备用其它的方式增加未来退休金的收入。

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